Note : Hearing on the recent events which related to the inquiry into the assets of Holocaust victims deposited in Swiss banks including the circumstances surrounding the shredding of bank records believed to pertain to business dealings during the Nazi rule in Germany. Swiss banks and the status of assets of Holocaust survivors or heirs. Note : Hearing on the circumstances surrounding the deposit of assets into Swiss banks by European Jews and others, the methodology utilized by the financial institutions in recording and maintaining these accounts and the response by Swiss banks to claims and inquiries made by Holocaust survivors or heirs regarding these accounts.
Witnesses included Edgar m. Bronfman, Greta Beer, Hans J. Baer and Stuart E.
Displaced Persons Camp -Germany
Note : The Germans did not seize Danish monetary gold because part of the gold reserves were deposited in New York and stayed there during the war. As a result, no claims were made to the Tripartite Godl Commission although claims were presented to the Paris Conference on Reparation in as a result of losses suffered during the occupation. Dertilis, G. The author notes other claims that have not been met including silver, an imposed loan to Nazi Germany. Bern: Independent Commission of Experts, May Note : This interim report of the Independent Commission of Experts, popularly known as the Bergier Report, provides contextual information on the gold which the Swiss National Bank bought from the German Reichsbank.
The report notes that it was clear during that German Reichsbank transfers might include gold from occupied countries; however, although the report confirms that the Reichsbank deliveries included victim gold, there is no evidence that the responsible Swiss National Bank parties had knowledge of this. English summary filed in Library at S8. In "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, Minsk: National Archives of the Republic of Belarus, Note : In , the Germans occupied Belarus.
Valuables clasificed as Jewish, hostile state and ownerless property were confiscated.
Silver and gold items were delivered directly to the Berlin Pawn Shop. Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. Note : In , Polish-Swiss Compensation Agreement negotiations called for the restitution of money belonging to Polish citizens on Polish territory on September 1, who could not be contacted. It was agreed that Switzerland would deposit the funds into the accounts of the National Bank of Poland.
This paper notes that it is false to say that Poland fulfilled commitments to Switzerland with this money. Note : The Paris Reparation Act, signed in January , regulated reparation payments and called for the restitution of stolen gold. It set up the Tripartite Gold Commission to which all countries, victims of Nazi theft, could submit claims for restitution of stolen monetary gold. Only half the gold claimed was found and returned because much German gold had been transferred to Switzerland. Switzerland claimed it had obtained the gold legally, however, to help reconstruct Europe, Switzerland did make some payment on the claims.
Easton, Donald F. Antiquity 69, no. Easton, Donald Fyfe. In The spoils of war - World War II and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural property, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Note : By the time of Schliemann's death, Troy treasures were dispersed to Berlin, where Schliemann deposited the state's share of his treasures; Constantinople; Athens, where Schliemann kept his own share; and, missing items, some of them stolen from the repository at Constantinople.
Filed in Library at E2. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Testimony: on the U. Government supplementary report on Nazi assets. Washington: State Department, Government supplementary report on Nazi assets, June 4, Note : Eizenstat notes that the latest report is a follow-up to the first report which focuses on the uses to which the looted gold was put - how it enabled the Nazis to purchase critical war supplies from neutral countries. Filed in Library at E3. Holocaust reverberation: the emerging story of Nazi gold. Note : The author led an agency federal effort to establish the facts about the policies and actions of the US in denying Nazi Germany the economic capacity to wage war; and our postwar efforts to recover the assets looted by Nazis during WWII in order to compensate looted countries and individual victims.
The report established that the German Reichsbank incorporated into its gold reserves looted monetary gold from governments of countries occupied by the Nazis; that much of the looted gold went on Swiss banks; that neutral countries facilitated the Nazi war efforts through gold exchange and supplies; that some victim gold was included in neutral bank gold; and that the Allies did not make an sufficient effort to recover looted assets from neutral countries.
Eizenstat told this group that Switzerland has recently led the international effort to face its past honestly, and suggested goals for sustaining the momentum and moving forward to secure justice for victims and heirs. Maclean's Canada , no. Note : Boycotts against Swiss banks have been suspended as negotiations result in a lump sum settlement for Holocaust victims with dormant accounts. Note : This paper reflects the historic involvement of the Federal Reserve Bank with Nazi gold due to its role as depository for the Tripartitel Gold Commission and includes a bar-by-bar inventory; a history of all TGC account activity since ; and other paperwork.
Forsyth, Frederick. Dagens Nyheter: DN Sweden Note : In , Forsyth, researching The Odessa File, was informed that the Nazis had exported a huge shipment of gold secretly to Switzerland in the last weeks of WWII as the result of an August meeting between German miliary and industrial parties and Swiss bankers. The final shipment was to fund a new exiled Nazi party and, one day, a new Fourth Reich; it was planned to spirit top SS out of the Allies' hands and into "safe havens" abroad by setting up the ODESSA to fund the leadership abroad, to fund foreign leaders advocating antiSemitism.
Forsyth was shocked as he delved deeper into the events after , to find that the Allies had not scratched the surface of retribution. The Holocaust was not only a human crime, it was the biggest robbery in history: Jewish assets were confiscated, Jewish labor was exploited in slave labor camps. Filed in Library at F3. Note : This paper offers a chronological list of legislation passed by the Vichy regime against the Jewish community.
It also provides information about the looting of French art, including the brave story of Rose Valland of the Jeu de Paume museum. According to transcript, the Germans imposed Jewish contributions in the District Uprava's Jewish Board and the valuables were sent to Berlin. Also, in July all Jewish citizens of the city of Vileika were instructed to come to the synagogue with their valuables.
They were then taken to the river and shot. Gerasimov, Valentin.
Speech 1". Note : This paper describes the efforts the Federal Republic of Germany has made to compensate Nazi victims. The very first efforts were restricted to property, not to personal damage but, in , the Luxembourg Agreement between Germany and Israel recognized that Israel bore the tremendous financial burden of providing for many Nazi victims and provided for German aid in resettling Jews in Israel.
Over the years the number of persons eligible for compensation increased; after the fall of the Communist bloc, those victims could submit applications for restitution. Gold transactions in the Second World War: statistical review with commentary. Bern: Independent Commission of Experts, December Note : This working paper wars prepared as a technical contribution to establish for future discussion a foundation of statistics and standard definitions of categories of gold.
Filed in Library at I1. Haberman, Clyde. New York Times September 27, Late edition : 1.
Nazi Gold Bibliography | National Archives
Filed in Library at H8. Hancock, Ian F. Note : The Third Reich targeted the Romani gypsies for extermination as the only racially defined population singled out besides the Jews. Because of their tradition of carrying personal wealth on one's person, there is little paperwork on the topic. Note : US report is critical of the Truman administration, Switzerland and other neutral countries in the trafficking of gold and other looted WWII assets.
Hedin, Sven Fredrik and G"ran Elgemyr. Sweden and the Shoah: the untold chapters. The study notes the awkward balance between self-interest and compassion in recalling Sweden's humanitarian actions to aid victims of the Nazis. Summary filed in library at H5. Heintz, Jim. Associated Press January 22, Note : A Sweden investigative team's report indicates that Sweden received far more gold that previously thought and apparently disregarded Allied warnings that some of it may have been looted by the Nazis.
Filed in library at H7. Henry, Marilyn. Switzerland, Swiss banks, and the Second World War: the story behind the story. New York: American Jewish Committee, Note : This analysis of Switzerland's banking activities during WWII and what happened to Jewish assets in Swiss banks calls for Switzerland to help the remaining Holocaust survivors and to engage in "moral stock-taking" about its business and banking history. The documents of "Operation Safehaven", a US military intelligence operation assigned to identify and track Nazi assets in neutral countires, indicate that besides holding dormant Jewish accounts, Switzerland had stored German assets and allowed Germany to exchange gold for currency thereby enabling the Reich's war effort.
Switzerland's behavior since WWII demonstrates that the Swiss felt no commitment to uncover victim assets on their own. Shelved in the National Archives Library at D S9H46 Higgins, Andrew. Guardian February 7, Note : It is believed that Macau may have a center for laundering gold looted by Nazis from Jewish victims and other sources.
Witnesses have testified that weekly shipments of gold were unloaded in Macao and sent on to China. Hirsh, Michael. Newsweek November 4, : Note : Newsweek's probe discloses that after 50 years of financial sifting, there is no huge stash of Nazi gold in Switzerland - it has been scattered worldwide. The probe also indicates that many other parties, besides the Swiss, and including the Bank for International Settlements BIS , were involved in laundering Nazi money during the war or hoarding stolen assets after the war.
Filed in the Library at H2.